CORONA VIRUS ( COVID 19)

WHAT IS CORONA VIRUS DISEASE [COVID-19 ]?

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.

  • Coronaviruses are common in different animals. Rarely, an animal coronavirus can infect humans.
  • There are many different kinds of coronaviruses. Some of them can cause colds or other mild respiratory (nose, throat, lung) illnesses.
  • Other coronaviruses can cause more serious diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).
  • Coronaviruses are named for their appearance: Under the microscope, the viruses look like they are covered with pointed structures that surround them like a corona, or crown.

Mood of spread:-

The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol based rub frequently and not touching your face. 

Establishing quantitative evaluation method of contact infection ...

The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).

At this time, there are no specific vaccines or treatments for COVID-19. However, there are many ongoing clinical trials evaluating potential treatments. WHO will continue to provide updated information as soon as clinical findings become available.

As of now, researchers know that the new coronavirus is spread through droplets released into the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The droplets generally do not travel more than a few feet, and they fall to the ground (or onto surfaces) in a few seconds — this is why physical distancing is effective in preventing the spread.

Brief History Of This Pandemics:-

COVID-19 appeared in Wuhan, a city in China, in December 2019. Although health officials are still tracing the exact source of this new coronavirus, early hypotheses thought it may be linked to a seafood market in Wuhan, China. Some people who visited the market developed viral pneumonia caused by the new coronavirus. A study that came out on Jan. 25, 2020, notes that the individual with the first reported case became ill on Dec. 1, 2019, and had no link to the seafood market. Investigations are ongoing as to how this virus originated and spread. 

The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2).

The outbreak was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.

The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March.

On 4 July 2020, scientists reported that the Infection Fatality Rate (IFR) of COVID-19 and related pandemic is estimated as 0.6%, and the Case Fatality Rate (CFR) as 5%.

As of 7 July 2020, more than 11.6 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in more than 188 countries and territories, resulting in more than 538,000 deaths.

COVID-19 pandemic

Confirmed cases per 100,000 population as of 7 July 2020:

  >3,000

  1,000–3,000

  300–1,000

  100–300

  30–100

  0–30

  None or no data

Cases per country

Map of total confirmed cases per country as of 7 July 2020

  1,000,000+

  100,000–999,999

  10,000–99,999

  1,000–9,999

  100–999

  1–99

  None or no data

Deaths per capita

Map of confirmed deaths per million population as of 5 July 2020

  100+

  10–100

  1–10

0.1–1

  >0–01

A nurse caring for a COVID-19 patient in an intensive care unit aboard a U.S. hospital ship The Italian government’s outbreak task force Disinfection vehicles in Taiwan Temporary graves in Iran Low stock in an Australian supermarket due to panic buying

Disease :- Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Virus strain :-Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2)[a]

Source :- Probably bats, possibly via pangolins[2][3]

Location: -Worldwide

First outbreak :- China

Index case: – Wuhan, Hubei, China

1 December 2019: – present(7 months and 6 days)

Confirmed cases – 11,647,399

Active cases – 4,780,603

Recovered -6,328,000

Deaths -538,796

Territories -188

Primary spread of disease :-

The virus is primarily spread between people during close contact,

most often via small droplets produced by coughing, sneezing, and talking.

The droplets usually fall to the ground or onto surfaces rather than travelling through air over long distances.

However, research as of June 2020 has shown that speech-generated droplets may remain airborne for tens of minutes.

Less commonly, people may become infected by touching a contaminated surface and then touching their face.

It is most contagious during the first three days after the onset of symptoms, although spread is possible before symptoms appear, and from people who do not show symptoms.

Common symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and loss of sense of smell.

Complications may include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is typically around five days but may range from two to fourteen days.

There is no known vaccine or specific antiviral treatment.

Primary treatment is symptomatic and supportive therapy.

Recommended preventive measures include hand washing, covering one’s mouth when coughing, maintaining distance from other people, wearing a face mask in public settings, and monitoring and self-isolation for people who suspect they are infected.

Authorities worldwide have responded by implementing travel restrictions, lockdowns, workplace hazard controls, and facility closures. Many places have also worked to increase testing capacity and trace contacts of infected persons.

The pandemic has caused global social and economic disruption,including the largest global recession since the Great Depression.

It has led to the postponement or cancellation of sporting, religious, political, and cultural events,widespread supply shortages exacerbated by panic buying,and decreased emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases.

Schools, universities, and colleges have been closed either on a nationwide or local basis in 172 countries, affecting approximately 98.5 percent of the world’s student population.

Misinformation about the virus has circulated through social media and mass media.

There have been incidents of xenophobia and discrimination against Chinese people and against those perceived as being Chinese or as being from areas with high infection rates.

Incubation Period:-

It appears that symptoms are showing up in people within 14 days of exposure to the virus.

Symptoms:-

COVID-19 symptoms include:

Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment.  Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.

  • Anyone can have mild to severe symptoms.
  • Older adults and people who have severe underlying medical conditions like heart or lung disease or diabetes seem to be at higher risk for developing more serious complications from COVID-19 illness.

People with COVID-19 have had a wide range of symptoms reported – ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. People with these symptoms may have COVID-19:

  • Fever or chills
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Headache
  • New loss of taste or smell
  • Sore throat
  • Congestion or runny nose
Coronavirus - Symptoms | Ohio State Medical Center
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea

Look for emergency warning signs* for COVID-19. If someone is showing any of these signs, seek emergency medical care immediately:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
  • New confusion
  • Inability to wake or stay awake
  • Bluish lips or face

In rare cases, COVID-19 can lead to severe respiratory problems, kidney failure or death.

COVID-19 Diagnosis:-

Test at home for coronavirus infection in 10 minutes, NIV Pune ...

Diagnosis may be difficult with only a physical exam because mild cases of COVID-19 may appear similar to the flu or a bad cold. A laboratory test can confirm the diagnosis. 

Treatment:-

As of now, there is not a specific treatment for the virus. People who become sick from COVID-19 should be treated with supportive measures: those that relieve symptoms. For severe cases, there may be additional options for treatment, including research drugs and therapeutics.

Does COVID-19 cause death?

As of August 10, 2020, 731,570 deaths have been attributed to COVID-19. However, 12,127,638 people have recovered from the illness.

Preventive Measures:-

Coronavirus: doctor debunks Covid-19 myths in the viral thread ...

It’s crucial to practice good hygiene, respiratory etiquette and social distancing.

The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol based rub frequently and not touching your face. 

At this time, there are no specific vaccines or treatments for COVID-19. However, there are many ongoing clinical trials evaluating potential treatments. WHO will continue to provide updated information as soon as clinical findings become available.

Updated August 10, 2020


What is the difference between Influenza (Flu) and COVID-19?

Influenza (Flu) and COVID-19 are both contagious respiratory illnesses, but they are caused by different viruses. COVID-19 is caused by infection with a new coronavirus (called SARS-CoV-2) and flu is caused by infection with influenza viruses. Because some of the symptoms of flu and COVID-19 are similar, it may be hard to tell the difference between them based on symptoms alone, and testing may be needed to help confirm a diagnosis. Flu and COVID-19 share many characteristics, but there are some key differences between the two.

While more is learned every day, there is still a lot that is unknown about COVID-19 and the virus that causes it. This page compares COVID-19 and flu, given the best available information to date.

Is this coronavirus different from SARS?

SARS stands for severe acute respiratory syndrome. In 2003, an outbreak of SARS started in China and spread to other countries before ending in 2004. The virus that causes COVID-19 is similar to the one that caused the 2003 SARS outbreak: both are types of coronaviruses. Much is still unknown, but COVID-19 seems to spread faster than the 2003 SARS and also may cause less severe illness.

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